How do your 'findings' shed light on these concepts and, through them, on the substantive topics you studied? In practice, a combination of these methods is often used: Evans, D., & Gruba, P. (2002). Now you have to convert that mass of material and ideas into a written text that will make sense to a reader, and do justice to your findings. knowledge you are sure of because you have reliable evidence for it, other knowledge you think is only within the realms of possibility. "The moral here is to try to find a balance where you set a tone that indeed celebrates interesting findings without too many leaps, while at the same time reporting limitations without being unnecessarily negative," says David. Be clear and concise – focus on argument that helps to answer your research question or supports the hypothesis; avoid discussing distracting issues. Qualitative data is difficult to present neatly in tables and figures. Do the results conf… How will you decide which aspects of your findings are the most interesting and important? If you are discussing your findings in a separate chapter or section, limit your comments here to the specific results you have presented. For many kinds of research, the main work of interpretation cannot be done until most of the data has been collected and analysed. The difficulty in dating this archeological site. Sometimes the findings or results section of a dissertation comes in the same chapter as the main discussion. Claims should therefore be specific and precise, and the level of certainty must match the level of evidence. This section should be written in the present tense. First, the ability to identify changes in her program suggests to me that she has deeper pedagogical knowledge gained through critical reflection on her practice, and second, there is congruence between her expressed beliefs and the practice she describes. ", Roediger agrees: "Conclude the general discussion with a strong paragraph stating the main point or points again, in somewhat different terms-if possible-than used before.". Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives. The key words are ‘analysis’ and ‘results’ which implies that you … It must be in whole sentences and you must not stop. If so, why might this be? Academic Writing for Graduate Students (2nd ed.). DON'T: Exaggerate. If the discussion is in a self-contained chapter or section you will need to briefly summarise the major findings that come from the research and relate them to what you originally proposed to find out.If your research is testing a hypothesis, you need to answer these questions: Since one of the requirements of a doctorate is to make a contribution to knowledge, it is essential to show how your results fit in with other work that has been done in your field. or b) from the data, by showing its limitations: Some studies indicate that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. "Many students reach this stage of their careers having been focused for several years on the 'trees,'" says Yale University cognitive psychology professor Brian Scholl, PhD. How to Write a Better Thesis (2nd ed.). In your discussion you must draw together your research question and your own research results. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. Consistently use ‘this’ to refer to your own research and refer to previous research by name, place or time. 2. DON'T: End with it. Evans, Gruba and Zobel, in their book “How to Write a Better Thesis”, describe the discussion chapter as the place where you: “… critically examine your findings in the light of the previous state of the subject as outlined in the background, and make judgments as to what has been learnt in your work” Freewriting on a topic means taking a fresh piece of paper or opening a new word-processor document and writing anything that comes into your head on that topic for a limited time. Maintained by: Research & Learning Online Webmaster Team. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. (Adapted from Swales & Feak, 2004, p. 138). This section is concerned with presenting the analysis of the results of data analysis. The Discussion section represents the analysis of your research paper. Then, launch into "bigger picture" issues. Tell us how the findings are important or relevant based on the aim and scope of your study. 2. Are you working on a research project? The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. More detail can be provided in an appendix. Information for Indigenous Australians. The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to … The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write. What are the key concepts you have used in this study? Make reference to similarities or differences in approach or findings. Give each group a heading. In presenting your own interpretation of the results, consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternative interpretations from the literature. Thesis Writing: 9 Tips on How to Write the Results and Discussion Regoniel, Patrick May 25, 2015 Education , Research 3 Comments Writing the results and discussion section could be one of the difficulties that you encounter when writing your first research manuscript. The purpose of the results section of the thesis is to report the findings of your research. The next big step is to write the discussion. A claim like this, which implies that the statement is true in every case, cannot be supported with evidence. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. Help us improve your experience by providing feedback on this page. That includes avoiding language that implies causality when your study can only make relational conclusions. There are generally accepted guidelines for presenting the results of statistical analyses of data about populations or groups of people, plants or animals. He used more restraint with his dissertation and his committee thought he wasn't positive enough. Another technique you can use to unlock your unconscious thought processes is freewriting. Do your findings only support the hypothesis in part? In this chapter I shall try to show to what extent our texts conform to vernacular conventions of a well-told story of a saint, and in what ways they had to modify their originals to do so, attempting also to identify some of the individual characteristics of the three poems. Do your research findings support your initial hypothesis? Sometimes a reduced location element is used which gives only the table or figure number in brackets after the highlighting statement. These include stating your interpretations, declaring your opinions, explaining the effects of your findings, and making suggestions and predictions for future research. If you're feeling unwell, get tested for COVID-19 and stay home until you’ve received a negative result. Use a single sentence for each item. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. The way you present the analysis and interpretation of your data sits within a wider thesis framework, which can itself be thought of as a story (adapted from Silverman, 2005, p. 242-43): The challenge for every thesis writer is to hold the detail of the data in focus without losing sight of the big picture of the research. Table 5 shows the most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches. Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating, Approaches to assignments in your faculty, Principles for writing a Literary Studies Essay, Steps for writing a Literary Studies essay, Sample Business and Economics reflective essay, Understanding case notes and marker expectations, Reflective writing and critical incidents, Essay writing in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Reflective practice in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses, home disks are the most frequent source of infection, the wastewaters from plants A and B and of similar composition, their work with children was clearly the area of their professional lives that was bringing the most satisfaction, although there were some challenges identified, the data reveal that they were all seeking ways to improve their pedagogy and achieving success in different ways. ABN 12 377 614 012 Accessibility - Disclaimer and copyright - Website terms and conditions - Data Protection and Privacy Procedure - Data Consent Settings, Monash University CRICOS Provider Number: 00008C, Monash College CRICOS Provider Number: 01857J. Comments on figures and tables (data commentary) usually have the following elements: Instructions: Click on the highlighted data elements in the example below. How I do it now is that I have a lot of different things happening at once. This page deals with the central part of the thesis, where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. "This section of the dissertation provides an opportunity to revisit the 'forest.'". As a researcher, you are expected to distinguish carefully between: Therefore, very strong claims, like the one below, are rare in academic writing. This is why reporting data analysis is not enough; you need to: in order to make clear your contribution to knowledge in the field. CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Themes that emerged from the ESL students’ focus groups were compared and contrasted to the themes generated from the in-depth individual interviews with the academics. A component of summary of the findings is to provide a discussion for each of the findings, using anchor verbiage that justifies rather than distorts the intent of the findings. Sage Publications. After that, the organisation will vary according to the kind of research being reported. Writing a Conclusion Section. Rather, it's the time to pull back and take a fresh look at your work. For some fields of study, the presentation and discussion of findings follows established conventions; for others, the researcher’s argument determines the structure. Step 19: Write Discussion and Conclusion The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. Failing to acknowledge limitations or dismissing them out of hand.Â. Another aspect of making clear the contribution of your research is to draw out the implications of your findings. Evans and Gruba (2002) offer some good advice: 'Include enough data in an appendix to show how you collected it, what form it took, and how you treated it in the process of condensing it for presentation in the results chapter.' How to write chapter 4 Research findings Chapter 4 for Qualitative Research carries different titles such as ‘Analysis of Data’, ‘Results of Study’, ‘Analysis and Results’ and so forth. The data needs to be connected back through the layers of detail to the overarching research question it relates to. Starting with limitations instead of implications. You will need to check with your supervisor what your university department’s rules are regarding these two sections. The first step is to clarify for yourself what you know now, as a result of your research. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. View our latest COVID-19 updates. In most of the cases studied , reducing fat intake lowered the risk of heart disease. While the amount of discussion required in a thesis may vary according to discipline, all disciplines expect some interpretation of the findings that makes these connections. If so, what do they add to it? In the discussion section, you can provide interpretations based on your observations. Sage Publications. Monash University is a registered higher education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Reducing fat intake may lower the risk of heart disease. That means going back to the literature and grappling with what your findings mean, including how they fit in with previous work. Steven David, PhD, who successfully defended his dissertation in clinical geropsychology at the University of Southern California last May, found this point to be particularly difficult. the incorrect calibration of the instruments. Some researchers suggest that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Do your findings disprove your hypothesis? "It is easy to get caught up in the desire to be extremely comprehensive and to bring up every potential issue, flaw, future direction and tangentially related concept," says Sackett. Therefore, you should only use the studies mentioned in the … Reducing fat intake tends to lower the risk of heart disease. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. Use the same terms, academic writing style that was used throughout your research paper 3. You could try highlighting key words, or identifying any points that need further investigation. Try to make your sections and subsections reflect the themes that have emerged from your analysis of the data, and to make sure your reader knows how these themes evolved. Reducing fat intake could/might lower the risk of heart disease. Ask yourself these questions: 1. Is there anything there you want to develop further? Ideally, you will have written them down as they came to you. Why and how? She discussed this change: One of the things I've changed is this idea of herding children through the Kinder day: they go from indoor play to snack time to the mat and so on. 4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.3.1 Demographic Relationships and Study Variables Although it was not part of the purpose of the study, this set of data was intended to describe demographic variables of the sample and to assess for any influence on the research findings. By the time readers get to your discussion, they're tired, adds Sackett. The discussion is the meaty part of your Findings report and can be of great value to your audience if written appropriately. https://wordvice.com/research-writing-tips-editing-manuscript- In this chapter the results will be analyzed via thematic content analysis within the context of the literature reviewed in chapter two. The Discussion Section. This is writing to think. 1. For all types of research, decisions about what data to include are important. Are your findings very different from other studies? It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. Presenting new results; such data belong in the results section. The discussion section is the place to leave your mark. "Too often I am left excited not by what was in the dissertation, but by what was not in the dissertation. Now check the headings against your research question(s). Give them something clear, concise and interesting to read, and they're sure to appreciate it. It seems that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Use the first person to describe your findings. "I think that too many discussions make the mistake of ending with 'the future,'" he says. What else do your findings tell you, over and above what you initially set out to investigate? 1. You usually present the data you obtained in appropriate figures (diagrams, graphs, tables and photographs) and you then comment on this data. Last updated: Nov 2020. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. Golden-Biddle, K., & Locke, K. (1997). COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. "This makes me think 'Then why should I care or believe anything you found,' and want to stop reading right there," she says.
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