in Papua New Guinea. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Tree growth, dynamics, and productivity in a mature mangrove forest in Malaysia. R. stylosa has broadly elliptical leaf blades, up to 12 cm × 7 cm, flowers with styles 4-6 mm long and the hypocotyl up to 30 cm long. Role of Acrostichum species in natural regeneration of Rhizophora species in Malaysia. Flowers are self-compatible and usually wind-pollinated. R. apiculata is the most common mangrove species. | Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Wood anatomy of Rhizophoraceae. Rhizophora apiculata is distinguished from R. × lamarckii and R. × annamalai plus other IWP species by swollen (wider than long), corky br own bracts, one inﬂorescence Rhizophora apiculata. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. YieldsIn Malaysia, the 30-year rotation har- vested yield of green wood has been about 136– 299 mt/ha (61–133 t/ac). In Sri Lanka, Cerebera manghas is used in making masks for many traditional cultural activities. generated in the process of charcoal making has the potential to be used as antifungal agent especia Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid which is a crude condensate produced from the distillation of smoke lly to treat candidal infections. The wood of R. apiculata is hard, strong and heavy with an air-dry density of 960-1170 kg/m3. Forest Ecology and Management 17: 211-230. 413 pp. Their tangled prop root systems – illustrated in the header photo – are the “trademark” associated with all mangroves by most people (if they have heard … The sapwood is light yellow, 3-5 cm thick, and very distinct from the heartwood which is reddish-brown and darkens with age. Few production statistics from natural or planted stands are available. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Epub 2015 Apr 9. More intensive site preparation is required where flooding is limited due to large numbers of crab mounds and where there is severe infestation of Acrostychum ferns. Indonesia: bakau minyak (general), bako (Javanese), babakoan laut (Sundanese), Malaysia: bakau minyak, bakau tandok, bakau akik, Papua New Guinea: abia (Gulf Province), bahkweh (Northern Province), pana (Central Province), Philippines: bakauan (lalaki), uakatan (Tagalog), bakhau (Samar). Natural regeneration is often good, provided sufficient seed trees are left after harvesting. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Pharm Biol. Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. The methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth and induces the apoptosis through ROS generation and sensitizes the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 lung cancer cells. In South-East Asia 3 Rhizophora species occur: R. apiculata, R. mucronata Poiret and R. stylosa Griffith. With the opening of the canopy, the ferns may form up to 4 m tall, dense, continuous thickets, making it impossible for propagules of Rhizophora to enter the area. 2016;54(1):118-29. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1017886. Current rotations vary from 15 years (in firewood plantations in Thailand) to 20-30 years, but may be even shorter. According to , Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. The genus Rhizophora contains more species of mangrove than any other. 59:156-169. Occasionally, bagworms and larvae of the moth Strelote lipara cause localized defoliation of trees and seedlings. GC-MS analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and cytotoxic activities of Jacaranda mimosifolia methanol leaf extracts and fractions. stands. Bai X, Lai T, Zhou T, Li Y, Li X, Zhang H. Molecules. BMC Complement Altern Med. Check other web resources for Rhizophora apiculata Blume : PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories ; In the absence of hurricanes and chain saws, individual trees may reach 40m or more. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. One-seeded fruits start to germinate when still hanging on the tree. Rhizophora spp. Inflorescence in R. mucronata longer, forked 2 or 3 times, with more numerous flowers; hypocotyl longer (35-65(-90) cm). 447 pp. Chapman, V.J., 1976. The timber is suitable for making furniture. The alignment of differential nucleotide positions of the SBE 2 gene from Rhizophora species of Kiribati and the Malay Peninsula are shown in Table 1. Putz, F.E. Vivipary is characteristic for Rhizophora species. Further, antimicrobial … There are no known breeding programmes. Recently, they have also been extensively harvested for woodchips or converted for agricultural and aquacultural purposes. Planting programmes often coincide with the fruiting season. Production and international trade In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. Naz R, Roberts TH, Bano A, Nosheen A, Yasmin H, Hassan MN, Keyani R, Ullah S, Khan W, Anwar Z. PLoS One. The best way to regenerate a mangrove stand at the least cost is to encourage reproduction in the period before the final harvest by thinning and by minimizing damage to young plants during harvesting. PubMed:Distribution and accumulation of ultraviolet-radiation-absorbing compounds in leaves of tropical mangroves. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata.Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. Description. Mangrove-based Rhizophora apiculata was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Long-term, multiple-use management plans have to be developed and implemented to ensure sustainable use of the remaining resource. The poles are carried out of the swamp. It grows gregariously in swamps flooded by normal high tide, on deep soft mud of estuaries, often consolidated and sheltered from surf and currents by pioneer species of Avicennia L. and Sonneratia L. R. apiculata avoids hard soils and develops well in per-humid regions where it can form almost pure stands, sometimes in association with Bruguiera spp. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. HHS Media in category "Rhizophora apiculata"The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. In some plantations, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascularis) and grapsid crabs (Sesarma spp.) Taken together, the results showed that the solvent extracts of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. Accepted Name Plantae > Tracheophyta > Equisetopsida C. Agardh > Malpighiales Juss. For biomass calculation, tree height and diameter were measured in plot of 10m x 10m in compartment 18, 31, 71, 74 and 67. They can be distinguished in the field by some easily observed characters: bark grey, almost smooth, with vertical fissures in R. apiculata; in R. mucronata the bark is nearly black or reddish, rough or sometimes scaly. Srivastava, P.B.L., Majid, N.M. & Shariff, A.H., 1980. Mature propagules that remain viable for 4-5 months are gathered from the forest floor. Identification and revision of R. apiculata are largely based on morphological characteristics. a Butanol, b chloroform, c ethanol, d…, GCMS analysis of methanol extracts a showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic…, Antioxidant activity of R. apiculata solvent extracts at different concentration. Chin J Nat Med. Rhizophora apiculata Bl. Fruit an ovoid or inversely pear-shaped berry, 2-3.5 cm long, rather rough, brown. Additional planting and planting in denuded areas mostly succeeds well, provided the ecological conditions are suitable. The ash content is about 1 g per 100 g wood of the stem and prop roots, and 2 g in branch wood. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. The bark of Rhizophora spp. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Singapore: bakau minyak, red-tree. Bark grey, almost smooth or with vertical fissures. Tannin obtained from the barks of Blume was further separated into condensed and hydrolysable tannins. Further, antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts were assessed against human clinical pathogenic bacteria, and the results showed that butanol and methanol extract has potential antimicrobial activity. Propagules of Rhizophora spp. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata. The nanoparticles were tested for toxicity against MG-63 cells. Rhizophora apiculata is a least studied mangrove-based plant that has been used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia for its healing properties. Litterfall varies with stand vigour and age. The bark, according to some analyses, contains large quantities of pentosans and furfurol. Thinning is important for good stand development. Total aboveground dry matter has been estimated to be 160-190 t/ha in 15-year-old stands in Thailand and 257 t/ha in a 28-year-old stand in Peninsular Malaysia. Insects have occasionally been observed foraging for pollen. In sites where attempts at planting had previously failed due to pest problems, planting nursery-raised seedlings and transplanting of wildings proved successful. 5. It is a well-known fact that the generation of free radicals has been associated with oxidative stress. Rhizophora apiculata Blume Lim Sheh Hong, Darah Ibrahim, Jain Kassim and Suraya Sulaiman A research was conducted to study the anticandidal compound of tannin extracted from the barks of a mangrove tree, Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Tamai, S. & Iampa, P., 1988. Foliage and soil nutrients in Rhizophora apiculata Bl. 2018 Jun 8;23(6):1395. doi: 10.3390/molecules23061395. are sometimes attacked by a scolytid beetle (Poecilips fallax). Average annual increase in diameter over a 30-year period in Matang, Malaysia, was 0.32 cm. Flowers bisexual, sessile, yellow; calyx deeply 4-lobed, coriaceous, accrescent and reflexed in fruit, lobes ovate, 10-14 mm × 6-8 mm, concave, acute, brown-yellow to reddish, persistent; receptacle with a disk; petals 4, free, lanceolate, 8-11 mm × 1.5-2 mm, membranous, glabrous, early caducous; stamens mostly 12, sessile, anthers 6-7.5 mm long, acute, multi-loculate, opening with a large ventral valve; ovary semi-inferior, 2-celled, superior part enclosed by the disk, bluntly conical, 1.5-3.5 mm long; style 0.5-1 mm long, 2-lobed. It is killed by frost and by extended periods of near-freezing temperatures. Judging by the greatest volume production of firewood, a 40-year rotation is preferable. Rhizophora apiculata, as well as Rhizophora mucronata, is used to make charcoal in the charcoal kilns of Kuala Sepetang in Perak, Malaysia. Felled trees are bucked into billets of about 1 m long, and sometimes debarked before they are transported out of the swamp forest. Evergreen tree, up to over 30 m tall and with trunk up to 50 cm in diameter, generally much smaller in exploited forests; bole 10-12 m; stem supported by numerous, lateral, much branched stilt roots; aerial roots sometimes develop from the lower branches; taproot usually abortive; branching primarily sympodial. Branchlets swollen at the nodes, solid and pithy. Leaves decussate, rosette-like at the end of twigs; stipules lanceolate, 4-8 cm long, conspicuous, caducous; petiole 1.5-3 cm long, reddish; blade entire, elliptical-oblong to sublanceolate, 7-18 cm × 3-8 cm, leathery, green and shiny, apex acute to apiculate, base cuneate, veins distinct above, obscure beneath, glabrous with minute, scattered black corky warts on the lower surface, visible on older or dried leaves. Other Uses The bark is an important local source of tannin It does not occur in fresh water swamps. Seedlings may retain their viability for several months. Rhizophora in Australasia - some clarification of taxonomy and distribution. Noordhoff-Kolff, Jakarta, Indonesia. Eventually, the seedling falls from the fruit, floats with the high tide and establishes if it reaches a suitable site. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method (. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. NIH Thailand has prescribed the maintainance of a 10 m uncut strip along waterways to reduce the effects of waves and currents on regeneration. A few specimens have been collected with characters intermediate between R. apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa in western Malesia and western New Guinea. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. ex Bercht. Ninety Rhizophora apiculata leaf samples were collected from different compartments (18, 31, 71, 74, 42 and 55) based on tree age and management. FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. J. Arnold Arbor. Mangrove and mangrove associates are abundant plants that grow throughout Indonesian shorelines that have high pharmaceutical and food … Rhizophoraceae. Mangrove vegetation. The planting procedure is simple, involving inserting the propagules vertically into the muddy soil along predetermined lines and spacings. A Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the highly significant effect of antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of extracts. Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining (. Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. have been reported to be the major pests of newly planted propagules. The bark is rich in tannin, used for tanning leather and to toughen and dye fishing lines, ropes and nets. Read "Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2, Plant Cell & Environment" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. The bark provides a medicine against dysentery. This process involves selecting a well-formed tree and felling all pole-sized trees around it within a radius drawn by a stick 1.2-1.8 m long. and. | Compliance with ethical standardsThe authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose. R. apiculata is the preferred species in replanting programmes in most mangrove regions in South-East Asia. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for particle size and zeta potential. Large concessions in Indonesia require felling of trees down to a stem diameter of 7 cm in 50 m wide strips interspaced with 20 m undisturbed strips in a proposed 20-year rotation. Rhizophora forests are being heavily exploited for fuelwood and poles. eCollection 2020. Rhizophora apiculata Blume. may occur throughout South-East Asia as a low, tufted ground cover under the canopy. Background: Cigarette smoke is free radical that causing some pathological conditions such as inflammation, proteolysis, and oxidative stress.In previous studies, mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) bark extract showed the potential effect as an antioxidant. Presence of phenols and flavonoids of R. apiculata was analysed using gallic acid…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method ( a ) and…, FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. Derris trifoliata Loureiro can also be a serious strangling weed. Wildings are readily available, as natural regeneration is often profuse.
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