Adult life span is about three to nine weeks. Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an exotic plant pest.This insect pest is a serious threat to Australia’s cherry and berry fruit industries. Abstract. Adults are able to withstand longer periods of cold conditions than larvae or pupae (Walsh et al. Mitsui H, Achterberg VK, Nordlander G, Kimura MT. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. In general, Drosphila spp. Drosophila suzukii performance metrics of the number of eggs, larvae, and emerged adults were expressed per gram of fruit to standardize the results and account for different masses of cultivars at different developmental stages. Figure 10. Preliminary research from Oregon suggests that Drosophila suzukii larvae, pupae, and adults have the potential to survive fluctuating overwintering conditions for periods up to 60 days. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Drosophila or pomace flies are small insects commonly found in association with over-ripened or rotten fruits and vegetables. 0000020597 00000 n 1990. 0000012163 00000 n Agriculture and Resource Economics Update. Spotted wing drosophila female feeding on water droplet (E. Beers, December 2010) The spotted wing drosophila is an invasive pest from Asia, first discovered in California in 2008. 0000006649 00000 n Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Larvae. Bucket-style traps or quart containers used for monitoring other Drosophila flies can be effectively used for monitoring Drosophila suzukii. Pupae of Drosophila spp. (Drosophila suzukii: eine neue bedrohung fur den Europaischen obst- und weinbau - bericht uber eine internationale tagung in trient, 2, Dezember 2011.) Yeasts occurring in, Dubuffet A, Colinet D, Anselme C, Dupas S, Carton Y, Poirié M. 2009. It attacks a range of soft skinned fruit and reduces crop yield and quality through direct feeding damage and secondary infection of the fruit. Larval development occurs inside the fruit and develops through three instars before pupation. Molecular analysis of the larvae confir-med that larvae belong to the Drosophila suzukii. Proportion of ovipositing females (POF ) proportion of parasitoid females that oviposited when exposed to larvae of Drosophila suzukii in artificial diet or blueberries. Larvae of Drosophila spp. The serrations are much darker than the rest of ovipositor (Kanzawa 1939, Walsh et al. Drosophila (/ d r ə ˈ s ɒ f ɪ l ə, d r ɒ-, d r oʊ-/) is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. Chemical control. 0000132315 00000 n Hauser M, Gaimari S, Damus M. (October 2009). Figure 1. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Spotted wing drosophila is a small fly similar in size to vinegar flies which sometimes gather around over-ripe fruit. There are approximately 1,500 known species in the genus Drosophila (Markow and O'Grady 2006). Photograph by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. 44: 611-632. Degree-day models on Drosophila suzukii suggest that the entire life cycle (egg to egg laying female) can be completed within 12 to 15 days at 18.3°C (65°F) or a little more than a week at 21.1°C (70°F) (Walsh et al. Damage is caused primarily by larvae feeding on fruit pulp turning the fruit flesh brown and soft. 0000015082 00000 n Under conditions favorable to the SWD, the fruit begin to collapse as quickly as two days after the eggs were laid. The body is tapered anteriorly with elevated posterior spiracles. First detected within the continental United States in August 2008, Drosophila suzukii has become a serious threat to fruit crops. 0000003033 00000 n EM 9096 • October 2014. The SWD flies have brownish-yellow thorax, black stripes across the abdomen, and distinct red eyes. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. on overripe banana. The vast majority of Drosophila flies are associated with rotten or over-ripened fruits and are nuisance pests. Drosophila flies are weak fliers but spread easily through infested fruits or by wind. Green MM. However, true fruit flies belong to the family Tephritidae. The eggs are laid singly and are randomly distributed on fruits. In addition, it alsoreduces the fertility of the flies (during these ten days), resulting in feweroffspring20. Further inquiry, including systematic comparisons of Drosophila larval yeast associations more broadly, will be necessary to understand patterns of microbial resource use in larvae of D. suzukii and other frugivorous species. Entomopathogenic nematodes have been proposed as biological agents for the control of Drosophila suzukii, an invasive pest of small-stone and soft-skinned fruits.Larvae of the fly are susceptible to Steinernema carpocapsae infection but the reaction of immune defenses of the host are unknown. SEM of genitalia of an adult male spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura). Nonparallel geographic patterns for tolerance to cold and desiccation in, De Camargo R, Phaff HJ. There are approximately 1,500 known species in the genus Drosophila (Markow and O'Grady 2006). Therefore, all nearby sources of fruit should be managed to eliminate flies (Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, British Columbia 2009). Suzukii Drosophila: a new threat feature for the European fruit and viticulture - report for the international conference in Trient, 2, December 2011. 2010). 393 0 obj <> endobj xref 393 71 0000000016 00000 n Drosophila suzukii. b) Count larvae immediately—before they die and possibly sink to bottom of tray. Figure1a. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. (February 2010). 2009, Walsh et al. 2011). The initial oviposition site becomes sunken. The larvae may pupate ... Drosophila suzukii . 0000001716 00000 n 1988. 0000132862 00000 n In Japan, the fly produces 10 to 13 generations (Kanzawa 1939). http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/drosophila_suzukii.htm, Spotted wing drosophila (Fruit fly) Pest alert, Spotted wing drosophila new in Florida berry culture, Spotted wing drosophila could pose threat for Washington fruit growers. The fly called spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii) is emerging as a global plant pest of significance. 0000132689 00000 n Mature larvae may grow up to 6 mm in length (Kanzawa 1939, Walsh et al. 0000131471 00000 n Spotless males are also possible, but are rarely observed in the field and should be verified by a taxonomist for positive identification. Addition of a small drop of dish soap as a surfactant or placement of a sticky card within the traps improves trap efficiency by retaining the flies which have already entered the traps. Management practices for spotted-wing drosophila are similar to those used to manage common Drosophila flies. However, the role of beneficial organisms in management of Drosophila suzukii has not been fully ascertained (Walsh et al. Genetics 162: 1-3. RNA interference (RNAi) or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing is rapidly becoming a widely used functional genomics tool in insects and holds great potential for insect pest control. However, Drosophila suzukii's preference for ripening fruit necessitates use of chemicals with shorter pre-harvest intervals (Walsh et al. III. 0000017148 00000 n The effect of entomopathogenic fungi on Drosophila suzukii larvae, pupae andadult flies is currently being fully tested. Simple funnel trap baited with vinegar to trap adult Drosophila. 2011). This species is included in the EPPO A2 List as recommended to be included amongst the species in phytosanitary quarantine. Bradley TJ, Williams AE, Rose MR. 1999. Drosophila or pomace flies are small insects commonly found in association with over-ripened or rotten fruits and vegetables. on overripe banana. Spotless males are also possible, but are rarely observed in the field. Monitoring and trapping. 0000131844 00000 n trailer <<8732022B7153434681584327494E1D3E>]/Prev 604858/XRefStm 2521>> startxref 0 %%EOF 463 0 obj <>stream They are approximately 2–3 mm long. Physiological responses to selection for desiccation resistance in, Bolda MP, Goodhue RE, Zalom FG. & nbsp; 2009). Drosophila suzukii (Spotted Wing) Description SWD is a small fly (2 to 3 mm) with bright red eyes, a pale brown thorax, and an abdomen with black horizontal stripes. The larger larvae cut breathing holes in fruit. 0000019620 00000 n Oviposition scars from a female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), on a cherry fruit. Title: Antifungal properties of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) larvae. 2011. Photograph by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. Drosophila suzukii Male and female Drosophila suzukii Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Diptera Family: Drosophilidae Genus: Drosophila Subgenus: Sophophora Species group: D. melanogaster species group Species subgroup: D. suzukii species subgroup Species: D. suzukii Binomial name Drosophila suzukii Drosophila suzukii, commonly called the spotted wing drosophila or SWD, is a fruit fly. Figure 9. A number such as Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Metarhiziumanisopliae and Lecanicillium lecanii ensure a death rate of more than 50% among fruit flies11,20. Males have a distinguishing dark spot along the front edge of each wing. The Metarhizium Brunneum fungus even causesa death of nearly 90% of fruit flies after ten days. 0000131050 00000 n Flies could survive up to 10 generations per year under California climate conditions (Walsh et al. Fruits like cherries will show visible dents around the larvae. 0000009708 00000 n However, sensitivity to desiccation depends upon climatic conditions and flies could develop desiccation resistance over time (Davidson 1990, Bradley et al. The Tomakomai Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Within the United States, it has been established in Hawaii since 1980 (Kaneshiro 1983). 0000011758 00000 n 0000131303 00000 n However, the adult males differ from other native Drosophila males in that they possess a dark spot along the 0000015659 00000 n 0000014989 00000 n The spotted wing Drosophila is a vinegar fly originating from South-East Asia which has invaded many countries in America, Asia and Europe. The females have a serrated ovipositor with which they penetrate the fruit skin. 0000081382 00000 n Kimura MT. 0000003077 00000 n Adaptations to temperate climates and evolution of over-wintering strategies in the. Males have dark spots on the wingtips and black combs on the forelegs. SEM of an ovipositor of an adult female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), posterior view. 0000045287 00000 n 0000018524 00000 n 2009). Larvae: The larvae are milky-white and cylindrical with black mouthparts. %PDF-1.7 %âãÏÓ Abstract approved: _____ Ken Johnson Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a recently introduced, invasive pest in Oregon. However, flies emerging late in the season overwinter and may live longer. 0000010598 00000 n 1999). Microorganisms play a central role in the biology of vinegar flies such as Drosophila suzukii and Drosophila melanogaster: serving as a food source to both adults and larvae, and influencing a range of traits including nutrition, behavior, and development. 0000009820 00000 n Figure 11. Figure 7. 1957. 0000032681 00000 n Regularly stir the solution to bring larvae to the surface and to break Drosophila suzukii However, Drosophila suzukii is firmly established on the island of Hokkaido in Japan where winters average -4 to -12°C (Kimura 2004), suggesting the possibility of its establishment in cooler climates. First instar larvae are approximately 0.07 mm in length. 2006, Walsh et al. This wound can be a point of entry for fungi such as the monilia. It oviposits in near-mature and mature fruit, and … Many of the larvae will exit right away; the majority will exit fruit within 1 to 15 minutes. Eggs: The eggs are translucent, milky-white, and glossy. Monitor adult fly populations before fruit begin ripening and before flies begin laying eggs. 0000062086 00000 n Walsh DB, Bolda MP, Goodhue RE, Dreves AJ, Lee J, Bruck DJ, Walton VM, O'Neal SD, Frank GZ. Since then, it has rapidly spread to new areas including Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Washington and Wisconsin in the U.S., and British Columbia in Canada (Walsh et al. The insect resembles common vinegar flies in the genus Drosophila. Mixtures of yeast, sugar, and water; fruit purees, distillates from apple cider vinegar or wine; ethanol, acetic acid, and phenylethanol in 1: 22: 5 ratios are potent baits for monitoring Drosophila suzukii populations. 0000014490 00000 n 0000007566 00000 n 0000017631 00000 n A female lays approximately one to three eggs per oviposition site. To determine the immune response, larvae were infected with S. carpocapsae and Xenorhabdus … (December 2009). The eggs develop and hatch within the fruit in which they are laid (Walsh et al. Pupation can occur either inside or on the exterior of fruit. 2011). 2011). Journal fur Kulturpflanzen, 64:68-72 0000049415 00000 n Figure 4. 0000025586 00000 n Steck GJ, Dixon W, Dean D. (August 2009). 0000002521 00000 n Adult females of Drosophila Suzukii damage the surface of the cherry during laying. Not only are they larger, but they are common and often important agricultural pests (Green 2002). Biological control. The egg, larval and pupal stages last from 1–3, 3–13, and 4–5 days, respectively (Kanzawa 1939). 0000111668 00000 n larvae. It was discovered in western Washington, Oregon and British Columbia in 2009, and in eastern Washington in June of 2010. 2011). Figure 5. Parasitoids from the families Braconidae and Cynipidae are potential biocontrol agents of Drosophila suzukii. 0000004733 00000 n 0000059494 00000 n They have two dark “mouth hooks” at the front. Variation of. 2011). SWD belong to the Sophophora subgenus of Drosophila, a group that contains a large number of species (>300 worldwide), including the common cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and D. simulans . Figure 6. PMCID: PMC6746873 PMID: 31527678 Vertical microdistribution of Drosophilidae (Diptera) within various forests in Hokkaido. 0000079049 00000 n 0000118418 00000 n 0000016221 00000 n Head of an adult spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), frontal view. Insecticide sprays effective against other Drosophila flies are also effective against Drosophila suzukii adults. Photograph by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org. Adult male spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura). Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. A single female can lay one to 60 eggs per day and 200–600 eggs in her lifetime. Not only are they larger, but they are common and often important agricultural pests (Green 2002). 0000123991 00000 n 0000003113 00000 n Therefore, expert examination by a specialist is needed for positive identification and confirmation (Steck et al. Like most Drosophila spp., reproduction in Drosophila suzukii is rapid. 0000013215 00000 n 0000016606 00000 n 0000010145 00000 n 0000003678 00000 n Adults: Florida is home to at least 27 addiional Drosophila spp. The antennae are short and stubby with branched arista. Figure 8. The vast majority of Drosophila flies are associated with rotten or over-ripened fruit… Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. 2011). 1974 Transmission of. are very sensitive to desiccation. 0000047936 00000 n Orius insidiosus has been reported to feed exclusively on Drosophila suzukii. 0000007900 00000 n 0000006535 00000 n Ovipositor of an adult female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), lateral view. Drosophila flies are sometimes called small fruit flies. Beers EH, Smith TJ, Walsh DB. 2011). These fruits are full of yeasts and have a high protein content.The larvae then develop and grow on a proteinic diet. 0000011005 00000 n SEM of an ovipositor of an adult female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), lateral view. Figure 3. Geographical distributions and host associations of larval parasitoids of frugivorous, Molina JJ, Harisson MD, Brewer JW. Adult female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura). Internal organs of larvae are visible after it has consumed some fruit. 2007. Multiple clutches of larvae may be present on the same fruit because females may oviposit on the same fruit (Kanzawa 1939, Mitsui et al. The flies are most active at 20°C (68°F). 0000013516 00000 n Efforts to manage D. suzukii have focused primarily on insecticides, but such controls may, at times, be unreliable, given that D. suzukii larvae are often ensconced within fruit. Spotted wing drosophila: Potential economic impact of a newly established pest. The total life cycle may be completed within one to two weeks depending upon the climatic conditions (Kanzawa 1939). Activity becomes reduced at temperatures above 30°C (86°F) or below freezing. Although the major damages are caused by the larvae that soften the cherry by making not marketable s. Although up to 65 adults have been found in the same cherry, only the presence of one of them causes appreciable damage to the fruit. The traps perform best when deployed under cool and shady areas in the field (Walsh et al. 2011). 0000030385 00000 n Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Drosophila suzukii prefers a moderate climate but can also survive in cold conditions (Kanzawa 1939). 0000132954 00000 n 2002. including Drosophila melanogaster. It really is not a fruit fly. 0000132055 00000 n 2011). 0000013879 00000 n Photo via Alamy. Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is an invasive pest of soft skinned fruit which has been ... Drosophila larvae are up to 3 mm long, do not have legs or a clearly defined head, and are tapered on both ends.
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